I’ve gotten tired of googling the same things over and over again.

While loops

Run for period of time


runtime="5 minute"
endtime=$(date -ud "$runtime" +%s)

while [[ $(date -u +%s) -le $endtime ]]
    echo "Time Now: `date +%H:%M:%S`"
    echo "Sleeping for 10 seconds"
    sleep 10

Resource: https://www.golinuxcloud.com/run-while-loop-until-specific-time-shell-bash/

Infinite loop

while [ $item = true ]; do echo 'bla'; done

While value is an empty string

while [[ -z "$value" ]]; do
    echo "value is empty"
    # here's where we break out
    if [[ "$value" ]]; then
        echo "exiting loop because value has been set to $value"

Read each line of a file

while read p; do
  echo "$p"
done <file.txt

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/1521462/looping-through-the-content-of-a-file-in-bash

One-liner equivalent

while read t; do echo "$t"; done <bbh_targets.txt

Execute command once per line of piped input

command | while read -r line; do command "$line"; done

For example, if you want to run a program and send the output to different files using regular expressions:

recon asn -t recon_targets.txt | \
  while read -r line; do \
    ([[ $line =~ ^[0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,3}\.[0-9]{1,3}\/[0-9]{2}$ ]] \
    && echo $line | anew ip_ranges.txt) || ([[ $line =~ ^[0-9]{5}$ ]] && \
      echo $line | anew asns.txt); done

Resources: https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/7558/execute-a-command-once-per-line-of-piped-input Tool run for the example

For loops

Compute md5sum for every item in a directory

for i in "$(ls)"; do md5sum "${i}"; done | sort
for COUNT in $(seq 1 10); do
  echo $COUNT
  sleep 1

Read data into an array and loop over it

mapfile -t buckets < <(aws s3 ls | grep tf | awk '{print $3}' | tr " " "\n")
for b in "${buckets[@]}"; do echo "TF Bucket: $b"; done

Old method that does not spark joy for linters

buckets=($(aws s3 ls |grep tf | awk '{print $3}' | tr " " "\n"))
for b in "${buckets[@]}"; do echo "TF Bucket: $b"; done


Encrypt Key

openssl rsa -des3 -in key.pem -out encrypted-key.pem
# Enter a passphrase
mv encrypted-key.pem key.pem
chmod 400 key.pem

Decrypt Key

openssl rsa -in key.pem -out key.open.pem
# Enter the passphrase used to encrypt the ke
mv key.open.pem key.pem

Resource: https://security.stackexchange.com/questions/59136/can-i-add-a-password-to-an-existing-private-key

SSH to a host through another

You can run this command:

ssh -J name_of_host_to_jump_through remote_user@remote_host_ip

If you want to do it using ~/.ssh/config:

Host remote-host
  HostName remote_host_ip
  User remote_user
  ProxyJump name_of_host_to_jump_through


SSH Config with jumphost

Host jumphost
  HostName jumphost_ip
  User jumphost_user
  # Optional if you are using private keys for auth -
  # this key needs to be on the system you're starting from:
  IdentityFile ~/.ssh/jumphost-ssh-key.pem

Host targethost
  HostName targethost_ip
  User targethost_user
  ProxyJump jumphost
  # Optional if you are using private keys for auth -
  # this key also needs to be on the system you're starting from -
  # it will not work if it's on the jumphost:
  IdentityFile ~/.ssh/targethost-ssh-key.pem

Resource: https://serverfault.com/questions/337274/ssh-from-a-through-b-to-c-using-private-key-on-b

Specify directory for when you ssh in

Simply add the following to your ~/.bashrc or ~/.zshrc, etc:

cd /dir/to/start/in

Proper SSH Permissions

# Directory - 700
chmod 700 ~/.ssh

# Private keys - 600
chmod 600 ~/.ssh/id_rsa

# Config file - 600
chmod 600 ~/.ssh/config

# Public keys - 600 or 644
chmod 600 ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub

# Make public key readable by others
chmod 644 ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub

# Make authorized_keys readable by others.
# Should be 600 or 644
chmod 644 ~/.ssh/authorized_keys

Resource: https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/257590/ssh-key-permissions-chmod-settings

Status of SSH Service

sudo systemctl status sshd.service

Restart SSH Service

sudo systemctl restart sshd.service

Resource: https://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/centos-stop-start-restart-sshd-command/##centos_7_centos_8

Forward local service to remote host

This will forward a service running on localhost:3000 to a remote host on port 3000, and will allow other systems on the network to access that service.

On the remote host, run this command to add a line to the sshd_config:

echo 'GatewayPorts clientspecified' | sudo tee -a /etc/ssh/sshd_config

Next, restart the ssh service:

service ssh restart

Finally, run this command from the system running the service:

ssh -R :3000:localhost:3000 user@$target_server

Resources: https://serverfault.com/questions/861909/ssh-r-make-target-host-accept-connection-on-all-interfaces https://serverfault.com/questions/33283/how-to-setup-ssh-tunnel-to-forward-ssh

Run command over SSH

ssh ubuntu@yoursystem 'sudo apt-get update'

Resource: https://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/unix-linux-execute-command-using-ssh/

Run multiple commands with ssh

ssh -i ${KEY} ${USER}@${IP} << EOF
curl -sLO "https://dl.k8s.io/release/$(curl -L -s https://dl.k8s.io/release/stable.txt)/bin/linux/amd64/kubectl"
chmod +x kubectl
aws eks --region ${AWS_REGION} update-kubeconfig --name ${TARGET_CLUSTER}
./kubectl get pods -n ${TARGET_NAMESPACE}

Resource: https://www.shellhacks.com/ssh-execute-remote-command-script-linux/

Forward remote service to localhost

This example will forward the service running on target.server:8080 to localhost:8080:

ssh -L 8080:localhost:8080 username@target.server

Forward remote service via bastion to localhost

This example will forward the service running on target.server:443 to localhost:4455:

ssh -N -L 4455:target.server:443 username@bastion

Alternatively if you want to use a SOCKS proxy (say you’re using burp for example), you can do the following:

ssh -C -D 8085 username@bastion

and then point your SOCKS proxy to localhost:8085 in order to hit hosts only accessible via the bastion.

Resources: http://www.spencerstirling.com/computergeek/sshtunnel.html https://medium.com/@mccabe615/proxying-burp-traffic-e6e7a8adc101

View images on a remote system

ssh -Y user@server
apt install -y eog
eog pictures/foo.png

Resource: https://superuser.com/questions/557622/how-can-i-view-pictures-via-ssh

Transfer file to host running SSH on a particular port

scp -P $PORT file user@system

Resource: https://askubuntu.com/questions/182478/ssh-scp-to-copy-file-to-remote-server-port-21

Transfer file on behalf of another system

This is useful if you have two aws instances, and want to transfer a file between them from your laptop.

scp -3 -i $PEM_FILE user1@system_with_file:/file/to/xfer user2@system_that_needs_file:/file/to/xfer

Resource: https://superuser.com/questions/686394/scp-between-two-remote-hosts-from-my-third-pc

Fix SSH Too Many Authentication Failures error

Add this line to your ~/.ssh/config:

Host *

Resource: https://www.tecmint.com/fix-ssh-too-many-authentication-failures-error/

SSH master mode

Quick test with password:

sshpass -p 'password123' ssh -o StrictHostKeyChecking=no -N -M -S /tmp/mysock \
  ubuntu@ &
sleep 2
ssh -S /tmp/mysock ubuntu@ exit
sleep 2
ssh -S /tmp/mysock -O exit ubuntu@

Resource: https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/32984/multiple-ssh-sessions-in-single-command

SCP files using wildcard

Be sure to escape the wildcard, i.e. file-\*

Full example:

scp ubuntu@target:~/.config/cred\*

Resource: https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/27419/how-to-use-wildcards-when-copying-with-scp

Check if you can ssh to several hosts




for SERVER in $(cat hosts.txt); do
  ssh -i id_rsa -o StrictHostKeyChecking=no -o BatchMode=yes \
    user@$SERVER exit && echo OK $SERVER || echo ERR $SERVER

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/49564299/script-to-check-if-i-can-access-multiple-servers

Create SSH key script

ssh-keygen -t ed25519 -C "Key Description" -f "${KEY_NAME}" -N ''

Resources: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/10767488/automate-ssh-keygen-t-rsa-so-it-does-not-ask-for-a-passphrase https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/48863/ssh-add-complains-could-not-open-a-connection-to-your-authentication-agent/48868

Generate public key from private key

ssh-keygen -y -f ~/.ssh/id_rsa > ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub

Resource: https://askubuntu.com/questions/53553/how-do-i-retrieve-the-public-key-from-a-ssh-private-key

Show successful ssh logins

grep sshd.\*Accepted /var/log/auth.log

Show failed ssh logins

grep sshd.\*Failed /var/log/auth.log

SSHD with custom file

sshd -f <path/to/sshd_config/file> For example: sshd -f /tmp/sshd_config

The sshd_config file can look roughly like this:

Port 6022
HostKey /tmp/sshd_config/host_rsa
PasswordAuthentication yes
PermitRootLogin no

Fix known_hosts error

You should not use this unless you are dealing with a test host that you created.

ssh-keygen -R $TARGET_HOST

Resource: https://kinsta.com/knowledgebase/warning-remote-host-identification-has-changed/

Create sudo user non-interactively

Skip the prompts that come with creating a user typically, and give them sudoers privileges. Replace ${USERNAME} with the user you want to create.

# The man page explanation for --gecos isn't that intuitive IMO
# Basically specifying --gecos "" states you don't want to ask
# for real name, phone, etc.
adduser --disabled-password --gecos "" "${USERNAME}"
touch "/etc/sudoers.d/10_${USERNAME}"
echo "${USERNAME} ALL=(ALL) NOPASSWD:ALL" > "/etc/sudoers.d/10_${USERNAME}"

Resources: https://askubuntu.com/questions/94060/run-adduser-non-interactively https://askubuntu.com/questions/420784/what-do-the-disabled-login-and-gecos-options-of-adduser-command-stand

Run function as another user

export -f <function_name>
su <user to run function as> -c "bash -c <function_name>"

Run command as another user

runuser -l $USER -c 'whoami'

Resource: https://devops.stackexchange.com/questions/10402/running-a-command-as-a-specific-user-on-an-ec2-using-ssm

Exit-on-error mode

Put this at the top of your bash script: set -e. If a command returns a nonzero status, the shell will exit.

Resources: https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/97101/how-to-catch-an-error-in-a-linux-bash-script http://linuxcommand.org/lc3_man_pages/seth.html - man page

See files that would be unzipped without unzipping

unzip -v $FILE_NAME.zip

Unzip to a directory

unzip package.zip -d /opt

Resource: https://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/linux-howto-unzip-files-in-root-directory/

Color output in less

less -r $FILE

YAML templating


  password: "${bobs_password}"
  username: "${bobs_username}"
  machines: "${bobs_machines}"

Fill in the template and create final.yml:

export sample="Hello Yaml!"
export bobs_machines=""
export bobs_username="nats"
export bobs_password="password"
rm -f final.yml temp.yml
( echo "cat <<EOF >final.yml";
  cat template.yml;
  echo "EOF";
) >temp.yml
. temp.yml
cat final.yml

Resource: https://www.starkandwayne.com/blog/bashing-your-yaml/


python3 -c 'import yaml, sys; yaml.safe_load(sys.stdin)' < file.yml


cat file.json | jq

Code Style

Function declarations:

my_func() {


Variable declaration:


Source filenames should be lowercase with underscores to separate words, i.e. the_best_script.sh

Resources: https://google.github.io/styleguide/shell.xml##Variable_Names https://dev.to/puritanic/shellscripting-functions-2696 https://stackoverflow.com/questions/673055/correct-bash-and-shell-script-variable-capitalization

$HOME vs ~ in scripts

Opt to use $HOME as ~ is expanded by the terminal into the $HOME variable. Subsequently $HOME is going to be a more robust option.

Resource: https://ryankubik.com/blog/tilde-vs-home

Global variables in functions

If you want to set something as a global variable and use it in a function, do the following:

export SOMETHING="variable"

great_function() {
    echo $SOMETHING

Parse an env file

export $(egrep -v '^##' .env | xargs)

The env file you want to parse should look something like this:


Resource: https://gist.github.com/judy2k/7656bfe3b322d669ef75364a46327836

Send message to all users

echo "hi" | wall

Move file with rsync

rsync --partial --progress filename.txt user@ipaddress_or_hostname:~

Use SSH and rsync together

rsync -azvhe ssh --progress local_dir_to_copy user@

Remote to local:

rsync -azvhe ssh --progress user@ local_copy_of_remote_dir

Resource: https://www.tecmint.com/rsync-local-remote-file-synchronization-commands/

Sync two folders

Start with a dry run to ensure that it’s doing what you expect it to do:

rsync -rv --append-verify --dry-run folder_to_sync_from/ /home/ubuntu/folder_to_sync_to

Once you’ve confirmed it’s working as expected, simply remove the --dry-run to execute.

Resource: https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/487646/copy-changed-new-files-only-to-a-different-directory

Transfer multiple remote directories

This worked well for my MacOS systems:

DIRS=(/Users/user/dir1 /Users/user/dir2 /Users/user/.dotfiles /Users/user/dir3)

for DIR in "${DIRS[@]}"; do
    echo "Transferring remote directory ${DIR}, please wait."
    rsync -avzh --progress "user@${IP}:${DIR}" .
    echo "Transfer of remote directory ${DIR} complete!"

Resource: https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/575156/using-rsync-to-back-up-home-folder-with-same-permissions-recursive

Break up VM into multiple 1 GB files

Need to transfer a VM? Try this.

split -b 1000m vm.ova vm.ova.split

Bring it back together

cat vm.ova.splita* > vm.ova

Kill netcat after 3 seconds

timeout 3 nc google.com 80; echo exit=$?

Resource: https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/96817/how-do-i-get-the-nc-command-to-end-after-2-seconds

Test connectivity to service


# -z: report connectivity status only
# -w1: wait one second and then give up


# -e X: set escape character to X
echo X | telnet -e X $HOSTNAME_OR_IP $PORT


Determine if string exists in a file

if grep -q SomeString "$FILE"; then
  # SomeString was found

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/11287861/how-to-check-if-a-file-contains-a-specific-string-using-bash

Delete files if they match a wildcard

If you have two files, someFile and someFile2, this will delete both of them:

if ls someFile* 1> /dev/null 2>&1; then
  rm someFile*

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/12375722/how-do-i-test-in-one-line-if-command-output-contains-a-certain-string

Check if multiple binaries are installed

if command -v cowsay 2>/dev/null && ! command -v gshuf 2>/dev/null; then
  # do things if cowsay is installed but gshuf isn't

Check if file is missing

if [[ ! -f "some/file.txt" ]]; then
  # do things if the file is not there

One-liner to check if file exists

if [ ! -f /tmp/foo.txt ]; then echo "File not found!"; else echo "file found"; fi

Resource: https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/474244/one-liner-to-check-for-file-exists

Create missing directory

[[ -d dir ]] || mkdir dir

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/18622907/only-mkdir-if-it-does-not-exist

Number of duplicate lines in a file

sort "${FILE}" | uniq -c

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/6712437/find-duplicate-lines-in-a-file-and-count-how-many-time-each-line-was-duplicated

Run command in another directory as another user

This particular example is used to run a command as root in another directory

sudo -u root /bin/bash -c 'pushd "$HOME/.some_directory/"; ls -lart; popd'

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/10382141/temporarily-change-current-working-directory-in-bash-to-run-a-command

Bypass post-install configurations

If you have to install things via apt and run into blue screens that require human interaction, do this to avoid it:

sudo DEBIAN_FRONTEND=noninteractive apt install -yq [packagename]

Resource: https://serverfault.com/questions/227190/how-do-i-ask-apt-get-to-skip-any-interactive-post-install-configuration-steps

Get count of and list of most frequently used bash commands

history | awk '{a[$2]++;next}END{for (i in a){print i " --> " a[i]}}' \
  | sort -nr -k3

Reinstall a package in debian-based system

sudo apt install --reinstall <package> -y

Unable to fetch some archives, maybe run apt-get update or try with –fix-missing

Run this if apt update --fix-missing isn’t working for you:

rm -rf /var/lib/apt/lists/*; apt update

Alternatively, you can also try:

apt clean; apt update

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/38743951/unable-to-fetch-some-archives-maybe-run-apt-get-update-or-try-with-fix-missin

Save off auth logs for review

Useful to see who has logged into your system and when

last -F > /tmp/last


“Incognito mode” for bash

Turn off history for a session.

export HISTFILE=

If you do want a record of your activity in another file, run this command instead:

export HISTFILE=0

This will create a file, 0, with your history for that session.

Resources: https://github.com/mubix/post-exploitation/wiki/Linux-Post-Exploitation-Command-List https://www.maketecheasier.com/linux-command-line-history-incognito/

List NFS mounts

mount |grep nfs

When all users last logged in


All previously logged in users

lastlog |grep -v "Never"

Resource: https://www.rebootuser.com/?p=1623

Determine if host is sharing file systems

If there are local mounts, you will be able to see who you’re sharing with.

showmount -e localhost

Hosts with active connections to the system

netstat -pan |grep ESTABLISHED

Check if file has a certain number of lines

If file has 3 lines, tell us about it:

if [[ $(wc -l file) == *3* ]]; then
  echo "There are three lines in file"

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/12375722/how-do-i-test-in-one-line-if-command-output-contains-a-certain-string

If wc provides an inaccurate count

Add a newline to the end of the file with:

printf "\n" >> file.txt

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/12616039/wc-command-of-mac-showing-one-less-result


General Example

strace /bin/ls

View output of a running process

strace -p "${PID}" -e write

Resource: https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/58550/how-to-view-the-output-of-a-running-process-in-another-bash-session

Filter on write functions

strace -e write /bin/ls


Used to get the assembly output of a given binary

BIN="$(which ls)"
objdump -d "${BIN}" | tee binary_output.txt

Get size of all subfolders

du -sh *

Resource: https://www.macobserver.com/tips/mgg-answers/seeing-folders-size-terminal/##:~:text=From%20the%20Terminal%2C%20type%3A%20du,and%20folders%20with%20their%20sizes

List largest directories and files

du -hsx * | sort -rh | head -10

Resource: https://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/how-do-i-find-the-largest-filesdirectories-on-a-linuxunixbsd-filesystem/


List tickets in a keytab

ktutil -kt file.keytab list

Resources: https://kb.iu.edu/d/aumh##list https://community.pivotal.io/s/article/Kerberos-Cheat-Sheet

Create kerberos ticket

kinit <username> -k -t /where/to/store/keytab/nameofkeytab.keytab


Not matching

This example will find all jobs that don’t contain com:

launchctl list | grep -v com

Multiple not matching

grep -v ".git\|.terraform"

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/13610642/using-grep-for-multiple-search-patterns

Regex Example

This will get the version of ruby from rvm: rvm list | head -n 1 |grep -Po '\-(.*?)\s' | tail -c +2 The output from that command that it is parsing will look something like this: ruby-2.5.1 [ x86_64 ]

It will return 2.5.1.

Resource: https://askubuntu.com/questions/89995/bash-remove-first-and-last-characters-from-a-string

Negative Match

Match Inversion

grep -Ev 'pattern1|pattern2|pattern3' file

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/10411616/grep-regex-not-containing-a-string

Egrep Regex and return capture group

This will read a file with a bunch of gmail addresses in it (among other things), and then print the unique email addresses found.

cat file.txt | grep gmail.com | \
  egrep -o '\w+@gmail.com' | uniq -u

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/18892670/can-not-extract-the-capture-group-with-neither-sed-nor-grep/18892742

Search for string in files and return file name

grep -lrnw "thing to search for" .


Output only found files w/ grep

grep -rnlw "stringtofind" .

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/3908156/grep-output-to-show-only-matching-file

Search for string in specific file type

grep -i -r 'mystring' --include "*.yml"

Resource: https://community.home-assistant.io/t/searching-for-text-in-yaml-and-py-files/181948

Create self-signed cert

openssl req \
    -x509 \
    -nodes \
    -newkey rsa:4096 \
    -keyout server.key \
    -out server.crt \
    -days 3650 \
    -subj "/C=US/ST=Oregon/L=Portland/O=Company Name/OU=Org/CN=www.example.com"Department/CN=*"

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/10175812/how-to-create-a-self-signed-certificate-with-openssl


Extract command

This will extract several popular formats for you without needing to worry about the syntax for each:

extract() {
  if [[ -f "${1}" ]] ; then
      case "${1}" in
          *.tar.bz2)   tar xvjf   "${1}"    ;;
          *.tar.gz)    tar xvzf   "${1}"    ;;
          *.bz2)       bunzip2    "${1}"    ;;
          *.rar)       rar x      "${1}"    ;;
          *.gz)        gunzip     "${1}"    ;;
          *.tar)       tar xvf    "${1}"    ;;
          *.tbz2)      tar xvjf   "${1}"    ;;
          *.tgz)       tar xvzf   "${1}"    ;;
          *.zip)       unzip      "${1}"    ;;
          *.Z)         uncompress "${1}"  ;;
          *.7z)        7z x       "${1}"  ;;
          *)           echo "don't know how to extract ${1}..." ;;
      echo "${1} is not a valid file!"

Extract tar contents to specific directory

tar -xf archive.tar -C /target/directory

Resource: https://askubuntu.com/questions/45349/how-to-extract-files-to-another-directory-using-tar-command

Create tar.gz with var

tar -czvf "$name".tar.gz $name

Create encrypted zip

zip -r unenc.zip original_file
openssl enc -in unenc.zip -aes-256-cbc -e > enc.zip
# enter password when prompted

Depending on the situation, you may consider destroying the original unencrypted file:

rm unenc.zip

Decrypt and unzip encrypted zip

openssl enc -in enc.zip -aes-256-cbc -d > unenc.zip
# enter password when prompted
unzip unenc.zip

Remove duplicates from a file

sort inputFile | uniq -u > outputfile

Remove last line from a file

head -n -1 foo.txt > temp.txt ; mv temp.txt foo.txt

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/4881930/remove-the-last-line-from-a-file-in-bash


Get status code

status=$(curl -s -o /dev/null -w "%{http_code}" http://target.com)
echo -e "${BLUE}$status${RESET}"

Resource: https://superuser.com/questions/272265/getting-curl-to-output-http-status-code

Follow redirect

curl -L http://google.com

Resource: https://stackabuse.com/follow-redirects-in-curl/

Show response headers for request

curl -i http://google.com

Resource: https://stackabuse.com/follow-redirects-in-curl/

Silent mode

Use this when you are leveraging curl in a script:

curl -s http://google.com

Upload a file

To upload a file to an endpoint at /upload with a form field, fileUpload, you can do the following:

curl http://target.com/upload -F "fileUpload=@test.txt" -vvv

Send a POST request with params

curl -X POST http://localhost:4999/target \
  -d "param1=value1&param2=value2"

Download a file

This will also ensure that if a proxy is in place, it will not be used to connect to target.com.

curl http://target.com/puppet-linux \
  -o puppet-linux \
  -vvvv \
  --noproxy target.com

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/800805/how-do-i-make-curl-ignore-the-proxy

Download a file to a certain folder


curl ${DL_URL}" -L --output "${HOME}/Downloads/terraform_${TER_VER}_linux_amd64.zip"

-L - in case a redirect is found -o - output path for download

Resource: https://askubuntu.com/questions/285976/download-zip-file-with-curl-command

Use proxy

Useful to proxy requests through something like Burp Suite.

curl -X GET http://google.com --proxy http://localhost:8080

Resource: https://forum.portswigger.net/thread/how-do-i-get-burpsuite-to-intercept-my-curl-x-get-requests-that-i-am-launching-from-command-line-bfb630dd

3000 millisecond timeout

curl -m 3 http://www.google.com

Resource: https://ec.haxx.se/usingcurl-timeouts.html

Check if a string is a timestamp

date -r "${STR}"


date -r 1530279830

Resource: https://medium.com/@amalmurali47/h1-702-ctf-web-challenge-write-up-53de31b2ddce

Kill processes

  • Kill all python and go processes:

    pkill python go

Resource: https://www.techwalla.com/articles/how-to-kill-all-python-processes-in-ubuntu

  • Kill act process:

    sudo kill -9 $(pgrep act)
  • Kill process by path:

    pkill -9 -f /path/to/app
    # Example:
    pkill -9 -f /tmp/Linenum.sh

Useful alternative to man pages

Explain Shell

Display Web Content in Terminal

curl http://www.cyberciti.biz/
lynx -dump www.cyberciti.biz
wget -O - http://www.cyberciti.biz

Resource: https://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/unix-linux-get-the-contents-of-a-webpage-in-a-terminal/

Open file, grep it, send output to command

This particular example will search for instances of the ENC string and send them to eyaml decrypt -s:

cat file.txt | grep ENC | xargs --null eyaml decrypt -s

Delete to end of line in terminal


Delete to beginning of line in terminal


Resource: https://askubuntu.com/questions/269046/bash-delete-from-cursor-till-end-of-line-with-a-keyboard-shortcut

Generate a self-signed cert

openssl req -new -newkey rsa:4096 -x509 -sha256 -days 365 \
  -nodes -out key.crt -keyout key.key

Run command repeatedly

Option #1

while true; do
  "${CMD}"; sleep 2; \

Option #2

watch "${CMD}"

Resource: https://www.howtoforge.com/linux-watch-command/

Sleep with timer

Set MIN to the desired number of minutes you want to sleep for:

for i in $(seq $(($MIN*60)) -1 1); do
  echo -n "$i, "; sleep 1; \

Resource: https://www.commandlinefu.com/commands/view/5886/countdown-clock

Base64 encode with no word wrap

Useful for long strings that you want to base64 encode.

echo "thing" | base64 -w 0

Resource: https://conf.splunk.com/files/2019/recordings/SEC2286.mp4

Base64 decode string

echo 'stringtodecode' | base64 -d

Resource: https://www.base64decode.net/linux-base64-decode

Test if variable is set

if [[ -z "${1}" ]]; then
    echo -e "No input provided, exiting.\n"
    exit 1
  echo "input is ${1}"

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/3601515/how-to-check-if-a-variable-is-set-in-bash

Check if multiple parameters are set

if [[ $## -ne 4 ]]; then
   echo 'Required vars missing'
   return 1

Resource: https://www.unix.com/shell-programming-and-scripting/268257-how-do-i-check-if-all-parameters-set-bash.html

Add ssh fingerprint to known_hosts

Useful if you need this functionality in a script.

ssh-keyscan -H "${IP}" >> "${HOME}/.ssh/known_hosts"

Resource: https://www.techrepublic.com/article/how-to-easily-add-an-ssh-fingerprint-to-your-knownhosts-file-in-linux/

Working with input

Check if input is an ip address

if [[ -z $1 ]]; then
  echo "Usage: $0 <ip address>"
  if [[ $1 =~ ^[0-9]+\.[0-9]+\.[0-9]+\.[0-9]+$ ]]; then
    echo "Valid IP input, doing things with $1"
    echo "Invalid IP input"

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/13777387/check-for-ip-validity

Turn into function

check_input() {
  if [[ -z $1 ]]; then
    echo "Usage: $0 <ip address>"
    if [[ $1 =~ ^[0-9]+\.[0-9]+\.[0-9]+\.[0-9]+$ ]]; then
      echo "Valid IP input, doing things with $1"
      echo "Invalid IP input"

# Pass input from $1 to function
check_input $1

Resource: https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/298706/how-to-pass-parameters-to-function-in-a-bash-script

Check input against multiple cases

if [[ "${1}" != "puppet" ]] && \
   [[ "${1}" != "chef" ]] || \
   [[ -z "${1}" ]]; then
  echo "Usage: $0 <CM target>"

Resource: https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/67898/using-the-not-equal-operator-for-string-comparison

Validate script is run as root

if [[ "${EUID}" -ne 0 ]]; then
  echo "Please run as root"

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/18215973/how-to-check-if-running-as-root-in-a-bash-script/18216122##18216122

Multiline if with multiple conditions

if [[ -f "${CONTROL_NODE_FILES}/authorized_keys" ]] || \
   [[ -f "${MANAGED_NODE_FILES}/authorized_keys" ]] || \
   [[ -f "${MANAGED_NODE_FILES}/${KEY_NAME}" ]] || \
   [[ -f "${MANAGED_NODE_FILES}/${KEY_NAME}.pub" ]] || \
   [[ -f "${CONTROL_NODE_FILES}/${KEY_NAME}" ]] || \
   [[ -f "${CONTROL_NODE_FILES}/${KEY_NAME}.pub" ]]; then
        echo -e \
          Found existing SSH key pair, skipping the key pair generation step.


Show open ports

ufw status

Allow port

Open the firewall for port 46666:

ufw allow 46666/tcp

Allow service

This will work for OpenSSH:

ufw allow 'OpenSSH'

This is for Apache:

ufw allow 'Apache Full'

Disable UFW

ufw disable

Enable UFW

ufw enable

Resource: https://linuxize.com/post/how-to-setup-a-firewall-with-ufw-on-ubuntu-18-04/

Keep NC listener open

This will ensure that netcat doesn’t hang when an incoming connection is established.

nc -lvk "${PORT_TO_LISTEN_ON}"

Resource: https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/423407/how-can-i-keep-netcat-connection-open

Create random string

LC_ALL=C tr -dc 'A-Za-z0-9' < /dev/urandom | head -c 13 ; echo ''

Example usage:

wget https://github.com/artyuum/Simple-PHP-Web-Shell/blob/master/index.php \
   -O "/var/www/html/$(head /dev/urandom | tr -dc A-Za-z0-9 | head -c 13 ; echo '').php"

Resource: https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/230673/how-to-generate-a-random-string

Create random number

r1=$((1 + $RANDOM % 10))
echo $r1

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/1194882/how-to-generate-random-number-in-bash/1195035

Remove newline from end of string

tr -d '\n'

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/12524308/bash-strip-trailing-linebreak-from-output

Create three directories in tmp

mkdir /tmp/{d1,d2,d3}

Test cron job

# Add this to the user's crontab (crontab -e):
* * * * *   /usr/bin/env > /home/username/tmp/cron-env
# If root user:
* * * * * /usr/bin/env > /root/tmp/cron-env
# Create run-as-cron.sh
echo -e '##!/bin/bash\n/usr/bin/env -i $(cat /home/username/tmp/cron-env) "$@"' \
  > run-as-cron.sh
# Run the script to test it
run-as-cron /the/problematic/script --with arguments --and parameters

Resource: https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/42715/how-can-i-make-cron-run-a-job-right-now-for-testing-debugging-without-changing

Create daily cron job

This will create a daily cronjob that restarts a systemd job on the system every day at 3:05 am.

create_daily_service_restart() {
  # Create and set permissions for cron job
  echo "$(which systemctl) restart service" > "${cron_job_loc}"
  chmod +x "${cron_job_loc}"


Enable logging to /var/log/cron

# Enable cron-specific log
sed -i 's/##cron/cron/' /etc/rsyslog.d/50-default.conf

Crontabs for another user

You need to be root to do this.

List crontabs for a user:

crontab -u $USERNAME -l

You can also edit a crontab by using -e in place of -l.

Copy file to location with random name

# This will remove dashes, newlines and spaces
name=$(date | md5sum | tr -d '-' | tr -d '\n' | tr -d ' ')
if cp -R orig "$name"; then
  echo "Created $name"

Resources: https://www.howtogeek.com/howto/30184/10-ways-to-generate-a-random-password-from-the-command-line/ https://stackoverflow.com/questions/15801599/shell-script-copy-directory-passed-as-variable-to-another-directory-also-as-var

Copy multiple files to folder

cp {file.txt,file2.txt,file3.txt} dst_folder

Copy multiple folders to folder

cp -r {dir1,dir2,dir3} dst_folder

Show routes

netstat -nrl

Create route

This is useful if you’re having issues with VPN and something like Burp Suite.

sudo route add <target system> <local IP>

Netstat (without actually running it)

awk 'function hextodec(str,ret,n,i,k,c){
    ret = 0
    n = length(str)
    for (i = 1; i <= n; i++) {
        c = tolower(substr(str, i, 1))
        k = index("123456789abcdef", c)
        ret = ret * 16 + k
    return ret
function getIP(str,ret){
    for (i=5; i>0; i-=2) {
        ret = ret"."hextodec(substr(str,i,2))
    ret = ret":"hextodec(substr(str,index(str,":")+1,4))
    return ret
NR > 1 {{if(NR==2)print "Local - Remote";local=getIP($2);remote=getIP($3)}\
  {print local" - "remote}}' /proc/net/tcp

Resource: https://staaldraad.github.io/2017/12/20/netstat-without-netstat/

Show routing rules to reach a destination

ip route get <target>

For example, this will show the route that your system will take to get to (Google’s DNS Server):

ip route get

Note that you can also run this command on a mac after you install the iproute2mac package via: brew install iproute2mac

Resource: https://systemoverlord.com/2020/03/22/security-101-virtual-private-networks-vpns.html


Remove leading and trailing whitespace

trimmed_string=$(echo "no_trimmed_string" | xargs)

Another alternative:

awk '{$1=$1;print}'

Resource: https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/102008/how-do-i-trim-leading-and-trailing-whitespace-from-each-line-of-some-output

This assumes you have text coming from before the |.

| awk '{$1=""; print $0}'

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/2961635/using-awk-to-print-all-columns-from-the-nth-to-the-last/2961994

Split on / and print first column

awk -F '/' '{print $0}'

Use in an alias

This particular example will get the IPv6 address for eth0. The trick is remembering to escape the $2:

alias getIP="ifconfig eth0 |grep inet6 |grep global | head -n1 | awk '{print \$2}'"

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/20111063/bash-alias-command-with-both-single-and-double-quotes

Get string after hyphen

echo "foo-123" | awk -F- '{print $NF}'
# Will output 123

Resource: https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/193482/get-last-part-of-string-after-hyphen

Get size of current directory

du -hsx


Find files with a specific string and open in VSCode

find . -iname '*.hcl' -exec grep -rnw "prod" {} \; -maxdepth 2 \
  | awk -F : '{print $1}' | xargs code

Find and lint all YAML files

find . -type f -iname '*.yaml' -o -iname '*.yml' -o -iname '*.yml.tpl' \
  | grep -v "submodule_folder\|.terraform" | xargs -I {} cat {} \
  | python3 -c 'import yaml, sys; yaml.safe_load(sys.stdin)'

The only issue with this solution is it won’t list the files that it finds. If you would like this information as well, do the following instead:

files=$(find . -type f -iname '*.yaml' -o -iname '*.yml' -o -iname '*.yml.tpl' \
  | grep -v "submodule_folder\|.terraform"); \
  for file in $files; do \
    echo "Testing ${file}" && cat ${file} \
    | python3 -c 'import yaml, sys; yaml.safe_load(sys.stdin)'; done

Find and lint all JSON files

find . -type f -iname "*.json" -type f \
  | grep -v "submodule_folder\|.terraform" \
  | xargs -I{} jq . "{}" > /dev/null

If you want the names of each finding, you can adopt the work done for linting YAML above.

We also opt to use > /dev/null so that we only get files with errors.


List all file extensions in CWD

find . -type f | perl -ne 'print $1 if m/\.([^.\/]+)$/' | sort -u

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/1842254/how-can-i-find-all-of-the-distinct-file-extensions-in-a-folder-hierarchy

Grep output of find and save to file

find . -iname "thing to find" -exec grep -rnw "term to search" {} \; | tee filename

As an example, we can search for all python files recursively from the current directory and then grep for the word “git” in those files:

find . -iname "*.py" -exec grep -rnw "git" {} \; | tee git

Resource: https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/131535/recursive-grep-vs-find-type-f-exec-grep-which-is-more-efficient-faster

Search for content in tar.gz files

One way:

find . -iname "*.tar.gz" -exec zgrep "STRING" {} \;

Another way:

find . -name '*.tar.gz' -print0 | xargs -0 zgrep "STRING"

Resource: https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/187742/how-do-i-grep-recursively-through-gz-files

Find and delete all hidden directories matching string

find . -iname "${TARGET_DIR}" -exec rm -rf {} +


Find and replace all instances of a string

This will find all go files recursively from the current directory and replace all instances of “toreplace” with “replaced”.


find . -iname "*.go" | xargs sed -i 's/toreplace/replaced/g'

OS X with gnu-sed (installed via brew install gnu-sed):

find . -iname "*.go" | xargs gsed -i 's/toreplace/replaced/g'

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/1585170/how-to-find-and-replace-all-occurrences-of-a-string-recursively-in-a-directory-t

Find all bin files and create single file with strings output

find . -iname "*.bin" -exec strings "{}" \; | tee combined_strings_output.txt

Resource: https://superuser.com/questions/566198/linux-command-find-files-and-run-command-on-them

Find directories with a certain name

find . -type d -name "thingtosearchfor*" -print 2>/dev/null

Resource: https://askubuntu.com/questions/153144/how-can-i-recursively-search-for-directory-names-with-a-particular-string-where

Find a specific file

find /etc -name "passwd"

Find all bash_histories and send their contents to a file

find . -iname ".bash_history" -exec cat {} \; | tee ~/bash_histories.txt

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/864316/how-to-pipe-list-of-files-returned-by-find-command-to-cat-to-view-all-the-files

List all directories the current user has access to

find . -maxdepth 1 -type d -perm -u=rx

Run ls -lart on all dirs current user can access

This will also display the folder at the top of the output because we’ve used +.

find . -maxdepth 1 -type d -perm -u=rx -exec ls -lart {} + 2>/dev/null

Find all bash_history files the current user can read

find . -maxdepth 1 -type d -perm -u=rx -print0 \
  | xargs -0 -I{} find '{}' -readable -iname '.bash_history' 2>/dev/null

Find all .ssh directories that the current user has access to


find . -maxdepth 1 -type d -perm -u=rx -print0 \
  | xargs -0 -I{} find '{}' -readable -type d -iname '.ssh' 2>/dev/null

Not quite as clean:

find . -maxdepth 1 -type d -perm -u=rx \
  | xargs ls -lart 2>/dev/null |grep .ssh | grep "^.r..r..r"

Breaking this down:

find . -maxdepth 1 -type d -perm -u=rx - find all directories the current user has access to

| xargs ls -lart 2>/dev/null - send the output of the find command to

ls -lart and suppress the Permission denied messages

|grep .ssh | grep "^.r..r..r" - output all files with ssh in the name with read permissions for all users

Show all occurrences of users running ssh

find . -name .bash_history -print -exec grep ssh {} \;

Find all .go files recursively

find . -name "*.go"

Find bins with SUID or SGID set

Added output to /tmp/out.txt and backgrounded in the event you’re on a crappy shell.

for i in `locate -r "bin$"`; do
  find $i \( -perm -4000 -o -perm -2000 \) -type f 2>/dev/null; done \
  | tee /tmp/out.txt &

Resource: https://www.tecmint.com/how-to-find-files-with-suid-and-sgid-permissions-in-linux/

Search for secrets in config.xml files recursively

In this example, we are searching for patterns in config.xml files matching <secret, <password, or <credential:

find . -name "config.xml" -exec grep -iE "<secret|<password|<credential" {} + \
  | uniq -u

Find all csv files and delete them

find . -name "*.csv" -exec rm {} +

Delete all json files recursively

find . -name "*.json" -exec rm {} \;

Resource: https://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/linux-unix-how-to-find-and-remove-files/

Show all executable files

find . -maxdepth 1 -perm -111 -type f

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/7812324/finding-executable-files-using-ls-and-grep

Find world writeable directories

find /\(-perm -o w -perm -o x\) -type d 2>/dev/null

Resource: https://delta.navisec.io/privilege-escalation/

Remove any files in a directory

find "/path/to/dir" -type f -exec rm /path/to/dir/* {} \;

Resource: https://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/linux-unix-shell-check-if-directory-empty/

Find files not matching a pattern name

This will list all files in the current directory that do NOT have .template., .settings. in their name.

find . -type f -not -name "*.template.*" -not -name "*.settings.*"

Resource: https://alvinalexander.com/linux-unix/linux-find-files-not-matching-filename-pattern-dont-match/

Look for unique ip addresses with find output

find . -type f -not -name "*.template.*" -not -name "*.settings.*" \
  | xargs grep -oE "\b([0-9]{1,3}\.){3}[0-9]{1,3}\b" | sort -u


Find files with multiple extensions

This particular example can be useful when looking for yaml files:

find . -name '*.yaml' -or -name '*.yml'

Resource: https://askubuntu.com/questions/1170231/how-to-use-multiple-criteria-for-find

Find all .js files and tar them

find . -iname '*.js' -print0 | xargs -0 tar -cf /tmp/js.tar

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/47493109/how-to-find-specific-file-types-and-tar-them

Find all .class and .jar files and tar them

mkdir /tmp/java_files && \
  find . -iname '*.jar' -or -name '*.class' -exec cp {} /tmp/java_files \;
tar -czvf /tmp/java_files.tar.gz /tmp/java_files


Decompile all .class and .jar files in a directory

wget https://www.benf.org/other/cfr/cfr-0.151.jar
for file in java_files/*; do
  java -Xmx2048m -jar cfr-0.151.jar $file \
  --outputdir output --caseinsensitivefs true; done


Find all js files and cp into a folder

find . -iname "*.js" -exec cp {} ./all_js \;

Find all yaml files

find . -iname '*.yaml' -o -iname "*.yml" -type f

-o: OR in find


Recursively search files for string

This will identify all files that have “letsencrypt” in them:

find . -type f -exec grep -l "letsencrypt" {} +

Resource: https://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/howto-recursively-search-all-files-for-words/

Exclude directories found with find

find . -type f -name "*_peaks.bed" ! -path "./tmp/*" ! -path "./scripts/*"

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/14132210/use-find-command-but-exclude-files-in-two-directories

Using +

The + appends each selected file name to the end of the command.

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/6085156/using-semicolon-vs-plus-with-exec-in-find

Determine if file has been modified within the last n minutes

find . -mmin "-${minutes}" -type f -print

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/28337961/find-out-if-file-has-been-modified-within-the-last-2-minutes

Find files that match multiple patterns

find Documents \( -name "*.py" -o -name "*.html" \)

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/1133698/using-find-to-locate-files-that-match-one-of-multiple-patterns

Great find tutorial

TomNomNom breaks down the find command and makes it very approachable with this tweet: https://twitter.com/TomNomNom/status/1269263730992439296

Add terminal contents to a file

This is very useful if you have a long command that you want to modify quickly.

Type the following to open a file: CTRL + x CTRL + e

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/657130/fastest-ways-to-move-the-cursor-on-a-terminal-command-line

Get second column of file

cat output.csv | awk '{print $2}'

Make offline copy of a site

wget --mirror            \
     --convert-links     \
     --html-extension    \
     --wait=2            \
     -o log              \

Resource: https://alvinalexander.com/linux-unix/how-to-make-offline-mirror-copy-website-with-wget/

Download entirety of a site

wget --random-wait -r -p -e robots=off -U mozilla http://www.example.com

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/11124292/why-does-wget-only-download-the-index-html-for-some-websites


Insert text after matched string

This will add retries=2 after [ssh_connection] in ansible.cfg:

sed -i '/\[ssh_connection\]/a retries=2' ansible.cfg

Resource: https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/121161/how-to-insert-text-after-a-certain-string-in-a-file

Remove last line of a file

sed -i '$ d' foo.txt

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/4881930/remove-the-last-line-from-a-file-in-bash

Remove lines from file

This particular example will remove lines 5-10 and 12 from file.txt:

sed -e '5,10d;12d' file.txt

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/2112469/delete-specific-line-numbers-from-a-text-file-using-sed

Find and replace line in file


sed -i '' 's/<orig pattern>/<modified>/' file.txt


sed -i 's/<orig pattern>/<modified>/' file.txt

BSD and GNU:

sed -i".orig" 's/<orig pattern>/<modified>/' file.txt

Note: This last one will create a .orig file that you’ll probably want to delete later

Resources: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/7573368/in-place-edits-with-sed-on-os-x https://www.javaer101.com/en/article/13833496.html

Find and replace line assigned to variable in file


new_str="so new"
sed -i '' "s/staticlineinfile/${new_str}/g" "file/to/change.conf"


new_str="so new"
sed -i "s/staticlineinfile/${new_str}/g" "file/to/change.conf"

BSD and GNU:

new_str="so new"
sed -i".orig" "s/staticlineinfile/${new_str}/g" "file/to/change.conf"

Resources: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/4247068/sed-command-with-i-option-failing-on-mac-but-works-on-linux https://askubuntu.com/questions/76808/how-do-i-use-variables-in-a-sed-command

Add prefix to command output

yourcommand1 | sed  's/^/[prefix1]/'

For example, this will get all ip addresses associated with running containers, and add http:// to the front of each of them:

docker ps | awk '{ print $13 }' | grep -o -P "(.*:\d+)" | sed  's/^/http:\/\//'

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/42482477/add-prefix-in-bash-command-output

Remove nth line of a file

Remove the nth line of a file:

sed 'Nd' file

You have to use -i to modify the file.

For example, to remove the second line from somefile.txt and overwrite it:

sed -i '2d' somefile.txt

Resource: http://www.aodba.com/use-sed-command-delete-lines-linux/

Change shell with sed

This will change the shell from /usr/sbin/nologin to /bin/bash for the www-data user:

sed -i '/www-data/s/\/usr\/sbin\/nologin/\/bin\/bash/g' /etc/passwd

Resource: https://superuser.com/questions/558394/replacing-bin-bash-with-bin-false-in-etc-passwd-file

Get nth line of a file

sed 'NUMq;d' file

For example, to get the second line from somefile.txt:

sed '2q;d' somefile.txt

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/6022384/bash-tool-to-get-nth-line-from-a-file

Get range of lines from a file

This example will get lines 747-749 from file:

sed -n -e '747,749p' file

Resource: https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/138398/how-to-get-lines-10-to-100-from-a-200-line-file-into-a-new-file

Insert text at beginning of every line of a file

This example inserts bla at the beginning of every line of filename:

sed 's/^/bla/' filename

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/4080526/using-sed-to-insert-text-at-the-beginning-of-each-line

Add comma to end of every line of a file but the last

sed '$!s/$/,/' file

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/35021524/how-can-i-add-a-comma-at-the-end-of-every-line-except-the-last-line/35021663

Avoid escaping slashes

If you have slashes in your replacement string, you can use | instead of / to avoid escaping those slashes. For example:

sed "s|regex|replace|" file.txt

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/40714970/escaping-forward-slashes-in-sed-command/40715028

Capture control group

This will grab the number (51265) from the string:

echo 'BLA: 51265 - BLA - BLA' | sed -r "s/.*([0-9]{5}).*/\1/"

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/11650940/sed-how-to-do-regex-groups-using-sed

Replace one character with two

echo "asdlksad ~ adlkajsd ~ 12345" | sed 's/~/~\n/g'

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/18365482/how-to-replace-one-character-with-two-characters-using-tr

Replace specific lines of file

Print output without changing file:

sed '9,11s/\/\///g' config.js

Make the changes to the file: BSD:

sed -i '' '9,11s/\/\///g' config.js

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/16202900/using-sed-between-specific-lines-only

Merge two folders

rsync -avh --progress /path/to/source/ /path/to/destination

For example, if you have a recipes folder in /Volumes/stuff/recipes that you want to sync with your local recipes folder:

rsync -avh --progress ~/recipes /Volumes/stuff

Resources: https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/149965/how-to-copy-merge-two-directories https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/149965/how-to-copy-merge-two-directories##:~:text=If%20you%20want%20to%20move,are%20on%20the%20same%20filesystem.

Conditional based on output of a command

if echo $(command_to_run) | grep -q "thing to find in output of command"
    then echo "Yay, we found things!"
    else "We didn't find the thing we wanted to find!"; exit 1

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/3943854/grep-in-if-statement


chmod u+s <filename>

Resource: https://www.liquidweb.com/kb/how-do-i-set-up-setuid-setgid-and-sticky-bits-on-linux/

Remove files without an extension

In this case, we’ll rm every file that doesn’t end with the apk file extension:

find . -type f ! -name "*.apk" -exec rm {} \;

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/41935440/how-to-remove-files-without-certain-extension

Assign output to variable

pid=$(adb shell ps -A | grep processname | awk -F ' ' '{print $2}')

Resource: https://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/unix-linux-bsd-appleosx-bash-assign-variable-command-output/

Get first two characters of a string

Use head -c 2

Example that will get the first two characters of the apk found in /tmp:

find /tmp -name "*.apk*" | head -c 2

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/1405611/how-to-extract-the-first-two-characters-of-a-string-in-shell-scripting

Break long command down

This is useful if you have a long command and want to be able to lay it out to analyze. Assign the parameter to a variable and add \ for line breaks.

For example:

command="https://google.com/endpoint \
?fields=field1,field2 \
curl $command

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/32341091/multiline-curl-command

Get today’s date

today=`date '+DATE:%m%d%y' | cut -d: -f2`

Get the time

time=$(date '+TIME:%H%M%S' | cut -d: -f2)

Get the year

year=$(date | cut -d' ' -f 6)

Get the month and day

month_day=$(date '+DATE:%m%d' | cut -d: -f 2)

Create folder with date and time

mkdir `echo $(date +"%c") | tr -s ' ' | tr ' ' '_'`

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/13799789/expansion-of-variables-inside-single-quotes-in-a-command-in-bash

Check if today is a weekend

if [[ $(date +%u) -gt 5 ]]; then
    echo 'Sorry, you cannot run this program on the weekend.'

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/3490032/how-to-check-if-today-is-a-weekend-in-bash


Run script on startup

  1. Create systemd service file called <service name>.service and set the path to where you plan to have the script on disk:

    ExecStart=/usr/local/bin/<name of script>.sh
  2. Create the script to run on startup (call it whatever you want).

  3. Move the files into place and set the permissions:

    sudo mv <name of script>.sh /usr/local/bin/<name of script>.sh
    sudo mv <service name>.service /etc/systemd/system/<service name>.service
    sudo chmod 744 /usr/local/bin/<name of script>.sh
    sudo chmod 664 /etc/systemd/system/<service name>.service
  4. Enable the service:

    sudo systemctl daemon-reload
    sudo systemctl enable <service name>.service

Resource: https://linuxconfig.org/how-to-run-script-on-startup-on-ubuntu-20-04-focal-fossa-server-desktop

Show all enabled services

systemctl list-unit-files | grep enabled

Resource: https://askubuntu.com/questions/795226/how-to-list-all-enabled-services-from-systemctl

Get status of a service on the system

systemctl $SERVICE_NAME status

Get status of all user services on the system

XDG_RUNTIME_DIR="/run/user/$UID" systemctl --user status

Resource: https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/615917/failed-to-get-d-bus-connection-connection-refused

Get status of a specific user service

XDG_RUNTIME_DIR="/run/user/$UID" systemctl --user status file.service

Set env var in systemd service

Create the service like so: /etc/systemd/system/myservice.service:

ExecStart=/opt/myservice -env=true

Run these commands to update and restart the service:

# Reload units
systemctl daemon-reload
# Start the service
systemctl start myservice
# Confirm everything works as expected
systemctl status myservice

Resource: https://serverfault.com/questions/413397/how-to-set-environment-variable-in-systemd-service

Tail -f systemd

journalctl --follow _SYSTEMD_UNIT=gunicorn.service

Resource: https://thierry.marianne.io/view/0ae42ee4d7e86763a0de1765b8ae4ff6

Show what’s listening on a port

sudo lsof -i -P -n | grep LISTEN

Resource: https://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/unix-linux-check-if-port-is-in-use-command/

Exclude file from zip

This will exclude the .git folder, the README.md file and the Makefile:

zip -r output.zip . -x '*.git*' -x README.md -x Makefile


Trim whitespace from a bash var

echo "   lol  " | xargs

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/369758/how-to-trim-whitespace-from-a-bash-variable

Get open ports

This is one option that has some nice and concise output:

sudo lsof -i -P -n |grep LISTEN

Here’s another for newer versions of linux with a bit more info:

sudo ss -tulwn

Resource: https://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/unix-linux-check-if-port-is-in-use-command/

Handy Shortcuts

This will get the last run command:


So for example, if you run this command:

ls -lart

and then run this command:

!! |grep bash_history

You will be running the equivalent of:

ls -lart |grep bash_history

This will get the second command run in a line of commands:


For example, if you run this command:

file $(ldd /bin/ls | grep libc.so | cut -d' ' -f3) -L

and then type this in:


you will get the following command:

$(ldd /bin/ls | grep libc.so | cut -d' ' -f3)



@echo Things I want to say!

Resource: https://www.gnu.org/software/make/manual/html_node/Echoing.html

Variable declaration examples

Normal variable assignment:

BOOL_VALUE := false
@echo $(BOOL_VALUE)

Run bash command and assign output to $(BUILD_BUCKET):

BUILD_BUCKET := $(shell terraform output build_bucket | tr -d \")


Run several actions in a row

# Create phony target to avoid conflict with a file of the
# same name and to improve performance
.PHONY: all
all: build test

# Create phony target to avoid conflict with a file of the
# same name and to improve performance
.PHONY: build
 go build

# Create phony target to avoid conflict with
# a file of the same name and to improve performance
.PHONY: test
 go test -v

To run everything, simply run:



Bash command substitution

    - bucket=my-bucket; \
    aws s3api delete-objects --bucket $${bucket} \
      --delete "$$(aws s3api list-object-versions \
      --bucket $${bucket} \
      --query='{Objects: Versions[].{Key:Key,VersionId:VersionId}}')"; \
    aws s3api delete-objects --bucket $${bucket} \
      --delete "$$(aws s3api list-object-versions \
        --bucket $${bucket} --query='{Objects: DeleteMarkers[].{Key:Key,VersionId:VersionId}}')"


Use bash for loop

JSON_FILES := $(shell find . -type f -iname "*.json")
  for json in $(JSON_FILES); do echo "JSON file found: $${json}"; done

Export env var

This example is part of a terragrunt snippet in which the folder is the region associated with the Makefile, which is then used for the AWS_DEFAULT_REGION value.

REGION := $(shell ls | grep us)

Resource: https://github.com/nzoschke/gofaas/blob/master/Makefile

Loop over array

TF_FILES = .terraform .terragrunt-cache .terraform.lock.hcl

.PHONY: destroy
 - terragrunt run-all destroy --terragrunt-non-interactive -lock=false --terragrunt-source-update
 # Clear terragrunt and terraform files
 for file in $(TF_FILES); do find . -name $$file -prune -exec rm -rf {} \; ; done

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/52282549/for-each-on-target-of-makefile-variable

Run command and continue even w/ error

In this example, the find commands to clear the terragrunt cache will run even if the run-all destroy command has an error:

.PHONY: destroy
    - terragrunt run-all destroy --terragrunt-non-interactive
    # Clear terragrunt cache
    find . -type d -name ".terragrunt-cache" -prune -exec rm -rf {} \;
    find . -type d -name ".terraform" -prune -exec rm -rf {} \;

Set default value

Observe $MYVAR in Makefile:

MYVAR ?= default

.PHONY: all

    echo $(MYVAR)


$ make
echo default
$ export MYVAR=notDefault
$ make
echo notDefault

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/53369903/use-environment-variable-if-set-otherwise-use-default-value-in-makefile

If then else

.PHONY: all
ifeq ($(REGION),)
 echo "REGION not set, exiting!"
 exit 1
all: init plan apply


Run Makefile from another directory

make -C /path/to/makefile

For example, let’s say there’s a Makefile in ${FOLDER}:

make -C "${FOLDER}"

Resource: https://superuser.com/questions/370575/how-to-run-make-file-from-any-directory

Get unique values from bash array

echo "${ids[@]}" | tr ' ' '\n' | sort -u | tr '\n' ' '

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/13648410/how-can-i-get-unique-values-from-an-array-in-bash

Get public IP

Using curl:

# Will get your IPv4 address:
curl ifconfig.me

Using wget:

# Will get your IPv6 address (if applicable):
wget -O - ifconfig.co 2>/dev/null

Show hidden files with tree

tree -a

Expanded view of running processes

Run this to get a sense of processes and their parents

ps axjf

Download file to specific dir with wget

mkdir $install_dir
wget <file to download> -P $install_dir

Resource: https://www.tecmint.com/wget-download-file-to-specific-directory/

Get newest file matching a string

This will find all files that start with vncpass in /home/ubuntu/vnc and get the most recent one:

ls -t /home/ubuntu/vnc/vncpass* | head -1

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/5885934/bash-function-to-find-newest-file-matching-pattern

Get all files except ‘.’ and ‘../’

ls -A

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/22407480/command-to-list-all-files-except-dot-and-dot-dot

Convert cert to single line

awk 'NF {sub(/\r/, ""); printf "%s\\n",$0;}'  ca.pem

Resource: https://serverfault.com/questions/466683/can-an-ssl-certificate-be-on-a-single-line-in-a-file-no-line-breaks

Get certificate portion of pem file

openssl x509 -in cert.pem -outform der | base64 -w 64

For a full example, run this to generate a self-signed cert:

openssl req \
    -x509 \
    -nodes \
    -newkey rsa:2048 \
    -keyout server.key \
    -out server.crt \
    -days 3650 \
    -subj "/C=GB/ST=London/L=London/O=Global Security/OU=IT Department/CN=yourhostname.com"

and then run:

openssl x509 -in server.crt -outform der | base64 -w 64

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/40366409/get-just-the-certificate-portion-from-an-openssl-pem-file

Curl with client certificate

This will help you to avoid using the -k option if you’re using a self signed certificate (which you probably shouldn’t unless you’re doing some testing or have another good reason).

Get the client certificate (client.pem):

echo quit | openssl s_client -showcerts -servername yourhostname.com \
  -connect yourhostname.com:443 > cacert.pem

Use it in your curl command:

curl --cacert cacert.pem -X POST https://yoursite.com/endpoint -d 'data=hi'


Prevent curl output from being cut off

If curl output is cut off, put the variable in double quotes.

GOOGLE=$(curl -s -i https://google.com)
echo $GOOGLE ## fail
echo "$GOOGLE" ## success

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/53892741/missing-output-when-storing-curl-output-as-bash-variable

Diff output of two commands

This will diff the output of a find command with a bunch of not statements against a find command that pipes it output to grep, which in turn uses a perl regex to try an find files that match a bunch of numbers.json.

diff <(find . -type f -not -name "*.template.*" \
  -not -name "*.settings.*") <(find . -type f -name "*.json*" \
  | grep -P '.*?\d+.json')


Use json for POST body

curl -k -s -i -X POST --compressed \
    -H "Content-Type: application/json" \
    -d @input.json \

Diff two directories

diff -qr directory-1 directory-2

If you want to exclude criteria from the output, you can modify this example:

diff -qr goutils goproject | grep -v -E "(*utils.go|*utils_test.go|.git)"

Resource: https://www.tecmint.com/compare-find-difference-between-two-directories-in-linux/

Diff files and dirs - show diff and unique content

diff -x '.git' -bur directory-1/ directory-2/ | grep -- '---\|Only'

-x: exclude -b: ignore whitespace -u: unified context (3 lines before and after) -r: recursive


Get PID’s without ps

find /proc -mindepth 2 -maxdepth 2 -name exe -exec ls -lh {} \; 2>/dev/null

Resource: https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/115927/find-the-pids-of-all-threads-of-a-process-without-ps-or-pidof

Find PID of process using port

sudo ss -lptn 'sport = :80'

Resource https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/106561/finding-the-pid-of-the-process-using-a-specific-port

Netstat without netstat

Copy pasta ftw:

awk 'function hextodec(str,ret,n,i,k,c){
    ret = 0
    n = length(str)
    for (i = 1; i <= n; i++) {
        c = tolower(substr(str, i, 1))
        k = index("123456789abcdef", c)
        ret = ret * 16 + k
    return ret
function getIP(str,ret){
    for (i=5; i>0; i-=2) {
        ret = ret"."hextodec(substr(str,i,2))
    ret = ret":"hextodec(substr(str,index(str,":")+1,4))
    return ret
NR > 1 {{if(NR==2)print "Local - Remote";local=getIP($2);
remote=getIP($3)}{print local" - "remote}}' /proc/net/tcp

Resources: https://staaldraad.github.io/2017/12/20/netstat-without-netstat/

Show lines that match in two files

grep -Ff file1.txt file2.txt

Resource: https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/125155/compare-two-files-for-matching-lines-and-store-positive-results

Show files that have part of a string in them

grep 'string_to_look_for' . -R 2>/dev/null

Resource: https://superuser.com/questions/614526/finding-files-which-contain-a-certain-string-using-find-1-and-grep-1/614538

Cosmetic Color Output

This is an example of how you might consider different colors for output in a bash script:

RED="\033[01;31m"      # Issues/Errors
GREEN="\033[01;32m"    # Success
BLUE="\033[01;34m"     # Heading
YELLOW='\033[0;33m'    # Informational
RESET="\033[00m"       # Normal

echo -e "${BLUE}Running apt-get update, please wait...${RESET}"
apt-get update -y

Resource: https://github.com/TH3xACE/OFFPORT_KILLER/blob/master/OFFPORT_KILLER.sh

CLI input

Boolean Flag Example



while getopts ':f' option; do
    case "${option}" in
        'f') FORCE=true ;;
shift $(( OPTIND - 1 ))

main() {
    if [[ $FORCE = true ]]; then
        echo "Option f was supplied on the command line"
        echo "Option f was not supplied on the command line"


Example Usage:

bash sample.sh -f



hostname -f

Resource: https://www.tecmint.com/hostname-command-examples-for-linux/##:~:text=To%20view%20the%20name%20of,the%20FQDNs%20of%20the%20machine.&text=To%20display%20the%20alias%20name,%2C%20use%20the%20%2Da%20flag.

Create file with multiple lines

# set for the example below

cat <<EOT >> greetings.txt
line 1
line 4

Resource: https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/77277/how-to-append-multiple-lines-to-a-file

Run command on every line of a file

This example will resolve a list of hosts to their ip addresses:

getent hosts $(<host_list.txt)
dig + short $(<host_list.txt)

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/13939038/how-do-you-run-a-command-for-each-line-of-a-file

Show long line of ps

If there’s a process that you can’t read, you can run this command to see the whole thing:

ps -ef | more

Resource: https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/229541/view-full-commands-in-ps-output

Copy multiple files

cp {file1,file2} dest

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/24206349/copy-multiple-files-from-one-directory-to-another-from-linux-shell

Get active network interface

This script will work on Mac OS or Linux:

ifconfig | awk '/UP/{print $1}' | grep 'eth0:\|en0:' | sed 's/://'


Check if script is running on a Mac

if [[ `uname` == 'Darwin' ]]; then
  echo "I am running on MacOS"
  echo "I am running on something."

Use placeholder with xargs

If instead of the echo you had a long command that you wanted to pass to sed, this is how you would do it:

echo 'REPLACED' | xargs -I {} sed -i "s/REPLACE_ME/{}/" file.txt

The {} serves as the placeholder for what we’re piping in.

Resource: https://www.shogan.co.uk/how-tos/using-placeholder-templates-with-xargs-in-the-pipeline/

Replace IP Address in file

pub_ip=$(dig @resolver1.opendns.com A myip.opendns.com +short -4)
sed -i -r "s/(\b[0-9]{1,3}\.){3}[0-9]{1,3}\b/$pub_ip/" file.txt

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/5277156/using-sed-to-search-and-replace-an-ip-address-in-a-file

Find IP addresses in file

This will find invalid IP addresses if those are present:

grep -oE "\b([0-9]{1,3}\.){3}[0-9]{1,3}\b" file.txt

To match only valid ip addresses:

# <!-- markdownlint-disable-next-line -->
grep -oE "(25[0-5]|2[0-4][0-9]|[01]?[0-9][0-9]?)\.(25[0-5]|2[0-4][0-9]|[01]?[0-9][0-9]?)\.(25[0-5]|2[0-4][0-9]|[01]?[0-9][0-9]?)\.(25[0-5]|2[0-4][0-9]|[01]?[0-9][0-9]?)" file.txt

Resources: https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/296596/how-to-check-if-any-ip-address-is-present-in-a-file-using-shell-scripting match only valid IP addresses

Check if string matches regex

[[ $date =~ ^regex$ ]] && echo "matched" || echo "did not match"

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/21112707/check-if-a-string-matches-a-regex-in-bash-script/21112809

Check if variable is empty

if [[ -z "$var" ]]
      echo "\$var is empty"
      echo "\$var is NOT empty"

For example:

if [[ -z $(aws s3 ls |grep -i tf-remote-state) ]]; then
echo 'Remote state not configured! Configuring...';
else echo 'Remote state already configured, moving on...'; fi

Resource: https://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/unix-linux-bash-script-check-if-variable-is-empty/

Check if env var is set

if [[ -z "${DEPLOY_ENV}" ]]; then
  MY_SCRIPT_VARIABLE="Some default value because DEPLOY_ENV is undefined"

Wait for process to finish execution

This particular example will loop until ansible is finished running. If it is not running at all, it will skip the loop entirely.

while /usr/bin/pgrep ansible >/dev/null; do
        echo "ansible is running"
        sleep 1
echo 'ansible is not running!'

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/38666191/while-loop-in-bash-that-uses-pgrep-to-check-if-service-exists

Regex capture group

users=(bob jane clyde)

for user in "${users[@]}"; do
  line=$(grep "$user favorite food" userdata.txt)
  if [[ $line =~ $regex ]]; then
    echo "$user has a favorite food and it is: ${BASH_REMATCH[1]}"

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/1891797/capturing-groups-from-a-grep-regex

Alias an export

alias sroot="export SROOT="\$PWD""
alias drumit="cd \$SROOT/abc/def/drumit"

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/7747673/how-to-alias-an-export-in-bash

Remove an alias

 unalias gs

Resource: https://askubuntu.com/questions/325368/how-do-i-remove-an-alias

Comma separated string to array

IFS=', ' read -r -a blas <<< "$string"
echo ${blas[0]}

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/10586153/how-to-split-a-string-into-an-array-in-bash

Append value to array

## Append foo to $ARRAY:
## Append bar to $ARRAY:

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/1951506/add-a-new-element-to-an-array-without-specifying-the-index-in-bash

Pass array as value to function


  for i in "${a[@]}"
    echo $i
  echo $b

a=(value1 value2 value3)

f "$b" "${a[@]}"

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/16461656/how-to-pass-array-as-an-argument-to-a-function-in-bash

Debug bash script

Run this command to get debug output from a bash script:

bash -x name_of_script.sh

Resource: https://tldp.org/LDP/Bash-Beginners-Guide/html/sect_02_03.html

Exit bash script

exit 0  ## Exits the script completely.  $? contains 0 (success).
exit 1  ## Exits the script completely.  $? contains 1 (failure).

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/4419952/difference-between-return-and-exit-in-bash-functions

URL Encode a string

This is a lifesaver when working with curl.

urlencode() {


    local length="${##1}"
    for (( i = 0; i < length; i++ )); do
        local c="${1:$i:1}"
        case $c in
            [a-zA-Z0-9.~_-]) printf '%s' "$c" ;;
            *) printf '%%%02X' "'$c" ;;

urlencode "a string yay"

Resource: https://gist.github.com/cdown/1163649

Get Public IP address and Geolocation

curl -s https://ipapi.co/$(curl -s ifconfig.me)/json | jq

Resources: https://ipapi.co/##api https://www.tecmint.com/find-linux-server-geographic-location/

Multiline string to a file

Everything in between the EOM delimiters is the string that will go into the file (trust_policy.json in this case).

cat > trust_policy.json <<- EOM

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/23929235/multi-line-string-with-extra-space-preserved-indentation

Set default value for var



echo ${FOO}
echo ${DOG}

If you run it this way, the output will be will be reflected:

bash test.sh

## Output:

If you run it with arguments, the output will change:

bash test.sh chicken no

## Output:

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/16319720/bash-command-line-arguments-replacing-defaults-for-variables/16836338

View all arguments submitted via CLI

echo $@

Resource: https://linuxconfig.org/how-do-i-print-all-arguments-submitted-on-a-command-line-from-a-bash-script

Check spelling in files

aspell check --mode=markdown --lang=en README.md

Resource: https://www.manuel-strehl.de/check_markdown_spelling_with_aspell

Run bash commands in script after chroot

chroot /home/ubuntu/chroot/codebase /bin/bash <<"EOT"
cd /tmp/so
ls -l
echo $$

Delete files with specified extension from directory


ls "${DIR}" | grep "${EXT}" | xargs -I {} rm "${DIR}/{}"

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/51305706/shell-script-that-does-chroot-and-execute-commands-in-chroot/51312156

HEREDOC with bash variables

kubectl exec -it -f helm_file.yaml -- chroot /mnt /bin/bash <<EOF
./kubeletmein generate
./kubectl --kubeconfig ./kubeconfig.yaml get pods -n ${TARGET_NAMESPACE}

Resource: https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/138418/passing-a-variable-to-a-bash-script-that-uses-eof-and-considers-the-variable-a

Bind non priv user to a priv port

setcap 'cap_net_bind_service=+ep' /path/to/program

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/413807/is-there-a-way-for-non-root-processes-to-bind-to-privileged-ports-on-linux

Test Web Socket

npm install -g wscat
wscat -c "${TARGET}"

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/47860689/how-to-read-websocket-response-in-linux-shell

Convert string to lowercase

A few options:

# The strip() at the end removes any trailing newlines
echo "ABC" | python3 -c "print(open(0).read().lower().strip())"
echo "ABC" | sed 's/./\L&/g'
export a="ABC" | echo "${a,,}"

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/2264428/how-to-convert-a-string-to-lower-case-in-bash

String comparison


read -p "Enter first string: " VAR1
read -p "Enter second string: " VAR2

if [[ "$VAR1" == "$VAR2" ]]; then
    echo "Strings are equal."
    echo "Strings are not equal."

Resource: https://linuxize.com/post/how-to-compare-strings-in-bash/

Get architecture string

dpkg --print-architecture

Resource: https://unix.stackexchange.com/questions/180726/easy-command-line-method-to-determine-specific-arm-architecture-string

Reinstall package in /bin

If you accidentally delete a package in /bin, this is how you get it back.

MISSING_PACKAGE=coreutils ## change this based on your situation
cd && apt-get download "${MISSING_PACKAGE}"
dpkg -i *.deb

Resource: https://askubuntu.com/questions/906674/accidentally-removed-bin-how-do-i-restore-it

Get filename and extension from path

filename="$(basename ${filepath})"

Resources: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/965053/extract-filename-and-extension-in-bash https://www.cyberciti.biz/faq/bash-get-filename-from-given-path-on-linux-or-unix/

Fix centos8 dnf

dnf -y --disablerepo '*' --enablerepo=extras swap centos-linux-repos

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/70963985/error-failed-to-download-metadata-for-repo-appstream-cannot-prepare-internal

## Get all functions into newline separated string
fstr="$(declare -F \
    | awk '{print $NF}' \
    | sort \
    | egrep -v '^_')"

## This entry also covers converting a multiline string
## to an array:
SAVEIFS=$IFS   ## Save current IFS (Internal Field Separator)
IFS=$'\n'      ## Change IFS to newline char
funcs=($fstr)  ## split `fstr` into an array by the same name
IFS=$SAVEIFS   ## Restore original IFS

echo "This file has the following functions:"
for f in "${funcs[@]}"; do
  echo "${f}"


Upgrade ubuntu install from LTS

Change the following line in /etc/update-manager/release-upgrades from:




and run the following to kick the process off:

sudo do-release-upgrade

Resource: https://www.omgubuntu.co.uk/2020/10/how-to-upgrade-to-ubuntu-20-10-from-ubuntu-20-04

Get substring after delimiter

This example will get everything after the first hyphen:

cut -d '-' -f2- <<< $var # outputs: two-three
cut -d '-' -f2- <<< $var # outputs: five

Resource: https://linuxhint.com/bash-substring-after-character/

Get OS and Arch

export OS="$(uname | python3 -c 'print(open(0).read().lower().strip())')"
export ARCH="$(uname -a | awk '{ print $NF }')"

Set Static IP on Ubuntu

Open as root /etc/netplan/50-cloud-init.yaml (or whatever file is present in /etc/netplan). Replace the contents of the file with this yaml after updating the various IP addresses for your needs:

      dhcp4: false
      addresses: []
        - to:
          metric: 100
  version: 2

Apply it:

netplan --debug apply

The --debug flag provides verbose output - feel free to omit it.

Add the following to /etc/cloud/cloud.cfg.d/99-disable-network-config.cfg:

network: {config: disabled}

Resource: https://linuxconfig.org/how-to-configure-static-ip-address-on-ubuntu-22-04-jammy-jellyfish-desktop-server

Get age of system

sudo dumpe2fs /dev/sda1 | grep 'Filesystem created:'

Resource: https://askubuntu.com/questions/1352/how-can-i-tell-what-date-ubuntu-was-installed

Run command in every directory below the current one

COMMAND='terragrunt init --reconfigure'
for d in ./*/ ; do (cd "$d" && $COMMAND); done

Get architecture

raw_arch=$(uname -m)
case $raw_arch in
        echo "Unsupported architecture: $raw_arch"
        exit 1
export ARCH

Set terminal type

The export TERM=xterm command sets the terminal type to xterm, a common terminal emulator used on Unix-based systems. This can ensure consistent behavior for command-line applications and is a good practice when using a terminal emulator.

export TERM=xterm # resolves "No value for $TERM and no -T specified"